Vakspecialisten op het gebied van de gezondheidszorg


ISCO 08 Code 3230      Traditional and complementary medicine associate professionals

Lead Statement

Traditional and complementary medicine associate professionals prevent and treat human physical and mental illnesses, disorders and injuries using herbal and other therapies based on theories, beliefs and experiences originating in specific cultures .

Task statement

Tasks include:

  • examining and questioning patients to determine the nature of the illness or complaint and recommended course of treatment;
  • treating sickness and injuries using herbs, medicinal plants, insects, animal extracts and other traditional techniques to cure and heal by stimulating nature;
  • setting and healing fractured and dislocated bones using traditional methods of manipulation, herbal preparations and oils;
  • advising the individuals and the community on proper diet and behaviour to preserve or improve health and well-being;
  • drawing blood to the surface of the body or applying pressure to parts of the body using a variety of traditional techniques;
  • referring patients to, and exchanging information with, other health and community workers.

Included occupations

  • Bonesetter
  • Herbalist
  • Witch doctor
  • Village healer
  • Scraping and cupping therapist

Excluded occupations

  • Acupuncturist - 2230
  • Ayuverdic practitioner - 2230
  • Chinese herbal medicine practitioner - 2230
  • Homeopath - 2230
  • Naturopath - 2230
  • Traditional midwife - 3222
  • Acupressure therapist - 3255
  • Hydrotherapist - 3255
  • Shiatsu therapist - 3255
  • Chiropractor - 3259
  • Osteopath - 3259
  • Faith healer - 5169


Occupations in traditional and complementary medicine whose practice requires an extensive understanding of the benefits and applications of traditional and complementary therapies, developed as the result of prolonged formal study of these techniques as well as human anatomy and elements of modern medicine, are classified in Unit group 2230, Traditional and complementary medicine professionals. 

Those whose practice requires a less extensive understanding based on relatively short periods of formal or informal education and training, or on knowledge passed on informally from generation to generation, are included in Unit group 3230, Traditional and complementary medicine associate professionals. 

Faith healers who treat human ailments through spiritual therapies, without using medication, herbal preparations or other physical interventions,  are included in Unit group 5169, Personal service workers not elsewhere classified. 

Occupations that provide therapy using traditional forms of massage and the application of pressure, such as acupressure and shiatsu therapists are classified in Unit group 3255, Physiotherapy technicians and assistants.

Traditional and lay midwives, who provide basic pregnancy and birthing care and advice based primarily on experience and knowledge acquired informally through the traditions and practices of the communities where they originated, are classified in Unit group 3222, Midwifery associate professionals.


ISCO 88 Code(s) 3241, 3229 part

(NCvB; Maart 2010)